Monday, October 03, 2005

ELECTION COVERAGE & COMMENTARY

In 2001, new regulations under the Parliamentary Elections Act allowed the use of the internet for promoting political parties or candidates, by the parties or candidates themselves. Parties/candidates can use the internet as a publicity vehicle during the election period, but cannot exploit the technology’s powerful mobilisational capabilities. For example, they cannot push out online petitions. They are also limited to a “positive list” of acceptable practices, which has not been updated to include newer technologies. As a result, audio/video-streaming is banned.

Non-party websites that have been deemed to be "political" in nature (eg Thinkcentre.org) are banned from carrying election publicity.

The Parliamentary Elections Act (PEA) regulates publicity during elections (from the day the elections are announced through a “writ” until the close of polls). The law pertains mainly to election advertising, but “election advertising” is defined broadly enough to include “material that can reasonably be regarded as intended… to… enhance the standing of… political parties, candidates or groups of candidates”, whether or not their names are mentioned. Furthermore, such material can be treated as election advertising even if it is “intended to achieve any other purpose as well”. This suggests that election commentary could come under the PEA.

News is exempted from the PEA. The news exception applies to publication “in a newspaper in any medium or in a radio or television broadcast”. The phrase “newspaper in any medium” presumably includes online newspapers. Does this mean that a citizen-journalist could start a news blog about the elections without worrying about the PEA? Not necessarily. Although “newspapers” are not defined within the Act, Singapore law does define newspapers within the Newspaper and Printing Presses Act. Reading the NPPA together with the PEA, we can assume that the PEA is referring to licensed newspapers. Since standalone websites do not have newspaper permits, they might not qualify for the PEA’s news exception. The upshot of this is that the election coverage of Straits Times Interactive would be considered news, but that of Little Speck or Think Centre might not. Similarly, streaming video or podcasts on a Mediacorp site (licensed under the Broadcasting Act) would be exempted from the PEA as news, but similar content on an independent website would not.

Also exempted from the PEA is the “transmission by an individual to another individual, on a non-commercial basis on what is commonly known as the Internet, of his own political views”. In other words, one-to-one communication will not be treated as election advertising. However, emailing a group of people would come under the PEA if it “can reasonably be regarded as intended… to… enhance the standing of… political parties, candidates or groups of candidates”. (Does this only apply to “relevant persons” or to all individuals? – to check)

What then does the PEA require? Election advertising must carry the names and addresses of the printers and publishers. Advertising is banned on polling day, although pre-existing posters and web material need not be taken down. The PEA also bans the publication of any election survey – including those covering voting intentions or election issues – during the election period, until the moment that polls close. Also banned during that time is the publication of exit polls and forecasts. This ban applies to all persons, including the news media.

In 2001, the Government instituted new regulations under the PEA governing the internet: the Parliamentary Elections (Election Advertising) Regulations (PER).

Candidates and parties are allowed to use the internet for election advertising. Photos and manifestoes, membership recruitment messages, and announcements of meetings on the web or through email are all explicitly permitted in a so-called “positive list” in the PER. Chat rooms are also allowed.

Emailed advertising must comply with certain conditions. First, the email must include a clear method for the recipient to get in touch with the sender and to remove himself from the email list. The sender must comply with such a request. Second, the email must not contain any statement requesting (even implicitly) that the recipient forward it to others or to republish it. Although it is not an offence for the recipient voluntarily to forward an email or web link, note that (unless you are a candidate or party) only individual-to-individual email is permitted. An individual who receives a campaign message from a party and then forwards it to a group list would be in violation of the PEA. In effect, these rules limit the “viral” effect of the internet, slowing down the spread of campaign messages. Parties that have built up large mailings list would therefore have an advantage over those that count on recipients to forward their messages.

Parties/candidates are permitted to run online discussion forums during elections, but must appoint a moderator who is answerable to the authorities. The moderator must remove “without delay” any postings as directed by the authorities. The moderator must also keep a record of all messages submitted.

Other than parties and candidates, the PER also covers what the Act calls "relevant persons" - defined as individuals or groups (other than parties/candidates) deemed by the Media Development Authority to be providing "political" content. This relates to the MDA's powers under internet class licensing system. Since the mid-1990s, the internet regulators have had the authority to ask "political" and "religious" sites to register themselves. This does not amount to requiring clearance/permission for publication. It is instead an accountability mechanism. Registration requires furnishing the government with details about the individuals behind a political/religious site. Think Centre's website is registered as a political site. Sintercom was asked to register before the 2001 elections, but chose to close down and relocate overseas instead.

Under the PER, "relevant persons" (to sum up: non-party sites that MDA has declared as political sites) are banned from engaging in election advertising.

As at March 2006, the number of "political" sites is small. The question is whether MDA will require more sites to register ahead of the 2006 GE, turning them into "relevant persons" under the PER and banning them from election commentary.

What about blogs? So far, no blog has been declared a political site, but since blogs are nothing more than easily-editable websites, there doesn't appear to be any legal reason why a local blog could not be required to register as a political site.

Many Singaporeans feel that there's a need for a truly independent source of news and commentary during elections. Logistically, it would not be difficult to put together a team of citizen journalists and volunteer editors to cover election rallies and put out detailed reports and commentaries via emailed newsletters and a website. South Korea's Ohmynews has shown the power of such citizen journalism. In Singapore, it may be hard to sustain such an effort on a permanent basis, but there would probably be enough energy and interest during election time to get such a project going.

Under the PER, the legality of such an initiative would depend on whether the MDA considers it a "political" site. If so, it would not qualify to use the internet as parties/candidates, nor would it necessarily qualify for the PER exemption that licensed news providers enjoy.

25 comments:

Anonymous said...

酒店打工

酒店兼職

台北酒店

打工兼差

酒店工作

酒店經紀

禮服店

酒店兼差

酒店上班

酒店PT

酒店

Adi said...

Thank you for sharing.
Oes Tsetnoc | Mengembalikan Jati Diri Bangsa | Kenali dan Kunjungi Objek Wisata di Pandeglang | Oes tsetnoc | Online Marketing | Electronics Gadgets | etips solution | Travel Guide

Miqdad said...

Gadget Technology Health Treatment Hobby Home Improvement Insurance Internet

dfadf said...

The Tax Return Crack-Up<2>
I was not shocked because this was old news -- practically ancient, in fact. In R. Microsoft Office Emmett Tyrrell, Office 2010 Jr.'s most recent book The Clinton Microsoft Office 2010 Crack-
Up, page fiv Office 2007 e, paragraph two, we learn that in Bill Clinton's "first four years out of the White H Microsoft Office 2007 ouse, he ea Office 2010 key rned over Office 2010 download $43 million Office 2010 Professional after
expenses... Microsoft outlook "
The next Outlook 2010 page directs Windows 7 us to Appendix Microsoft outlook 2010 I, a list of the conniving couple's fees for speeches and book royalties and other income. The first

Jack said...

I came across a nice quote while re-reading Randall Gould's great China memoir China in the Sun the other day. Gould was a veteran member of the old China press corps before the war.

cheap wow gold|Tera account|Tera gold|buy eden gold|wow gold

WOW Gold said...

buy eden gold
eden gold
cheap eden gold

Buying WOW Gold said...

Effectively on-line it is easy to go to a video exactly where among the list of event scientific studies that had got to experiment with the actual guidebook indicates the amount silver they've got produced in addition to illustrates which he or she is within the actual hosting server.

cambridge satchel said...

cambridge satchel are very fashion, now they have become a popular fashion trend. You will like cambridge backpack very much. ugg boot cambridge satchel company satchel cambridge leather bag

Anonymous said...

Satchel's most devastating pitch was the "hesitation." In some mysterious manner, he could pause in mid-delivery for a millisecond. It was just enough to confound the best batters. cambridge satchel|cambridge satchels|cambridge satchel|cambridge satchels|cambridge satchel companycambridge satchel co|the cambridge satchel company|cambridge satchel bag|cambridge satchel company briefcase bag|the cambridge satchel|cambridge satchel company review|cambridge satchel company 11 satchel|cambridge leather satchel|cambridge satchel company bag|satchel cambridge|cambridge satchel company discount|cambridge satchel bags|cambridge satchel company discount code

ambersbridal said...

A holy church, rings, a bouquet, a 3-floor wedding cake, lace wedding dress
champagne, and the moving promise “ I do”, make up the happiest moment in one’s life. Then it is the wedding.
lace wedding gowns
A gorgeous wedding dress has been inside a girl’s dream since she was five years old. It is widely said that the bride is the most beautiful woman all over the world.
Bridal gowns vary in different parts of the world. For example, cheap wedding dresses plus sizein traditional Chinese culture, the color red is regarded for centuries as the symbol of good luck; while in the Occident, wedding dresses 2012 a full-length white wedding dress is always associated with romance and sanctity. But, with the globalization, wedding dresses tend to be alike in the whole world.

Anonymous said...

A magician does not want to explain his hermes birkin tricks. There is an aura of taboo about a closed handbag. Every woman has an uneasy look if somebody glances into its sacred hermes kelly bag privacy. A decent man should always tactfully stare at the ceiling whenever his companion opens her hermes handbags for sale. He will, of course, have to concentrate on that ceiling pretty often.

cambridge satchels said...

Love is always can be a reason that can explain why we always buy Cambridge satchel. She is always can be most know that women need. Know we tired of winter cold, immediately launched color coat of paint sandals and decorations. Cambridge satchel discern the ladies for the purchase of a cool and refreshing feeling of handbags, which launched seemingly weave? Man-made fibers handbags, change hemp rope handle, Resort feel and return to. A change color, black night life desire and will awaken, two kinds of color, two kind of mood.

Black is always Cambridge satchel love, but the signature is coat of paint and color butyl two material, the black artificial fiber new look and golden cyworld nail and chains hand wan, compared with white series, this design must belong to clubbing look first choice, have rejected the gold chain heavy body, and hemp rope hand wan design chooses, care is dye-in-the-wood.

Cambridge satchel artificial fiber handbags series in last summer already exposure, but the wake of god's white series, abandon use silver triangle logo, and replaced with a wooden DaoSanJiao, with white bag body very look line, add hemp rope handle, already tell you she is representative of the summer, be the same as series also has a hand in chains in style.

The name of this type of leather bag "trente" one word in the French for "30" like, since 1946 from the home of the famous dior address-Paris, longs for 30 th. The long history of the famous construction has a private studio, dior current art director John Galliano sir is here with great concentration carve design work pieces. Today, the building or global flagship store, the seat of the dior. Michel DE montaigne avenue with its many luxury brand shop together and all over the world, it is absolutely Paris not miss landmark.

Cambridge satchels Leather bag with elegant details are full of the female's charm, like a beautiful evening dress. This type attract many people and all want to own it. The bag super capacity design, hang down plait appearance elegant decorous, soft hang adorn just a action can be launched into a corolla shape, form the spacious open his mouth. This also makes this leather interior space is capacious, and use convenient and comfortable.

Women leather jackets said...

nice post love it

chuangjiawow said...

thank you for your sharing~
it's so good !
I like it so much~


______________________________
enjoy game so much!
wow gold buyingWOW Gold CheapWorld Of Warcraft Gold

Anonymous said...

Efficiently on-lineCheap Runescape Goldit is possible to go to a movie in which the large choice of occasion scientific studies which had have got to try out the particular guide book suggests just how much sterling silver they've got manufactured in accessory for demonstrates which he Cheap MapleStory Mesosor even she actually is from the actual web hosting machine.

Anonymous said...

To get this sort of critters you undoubtedly dog collar require being urged to assist you to certify that possibly enjoying all the presents and they are near practical fitness once review. If you've gained over one puppy, subsequent the rrs really a must as you would like make sure that the dog carrier kitties may be within the perfect luxury combined with physical health whereas you have been off. Despite the presence of individuals devoid of everyone all round, certify they are being satisfied and content such as www.lovelonglong.com you are going to have them till you go back.

Buy rs gold said...

thanks for your sharing , i like it

mark leo said...

I liked your article, I will share your article to everyone!!




RS gold|Diablo 3 Gold|Buy WOW Gold|WoW Gold

www.windows7mart.com said...

I've a speedy internet connection so I guess the Windows update servers were slammed our website since it took more than two hours to download the 59 updates. That was followed by an hour as well as a half of watching Windows install those updates. When it was ultimately finished the method rebooted to apply the updates.

summermobile said...


Also exempted from the PEA is the “transmission by an individual to another individual, on a non-commercial basis on what is commonly known as the Internet, of his own political views”.

http://www.meizu-mx5.com/

Anonymous said...

good
Obat Wasir atau ambeyen
Pengobatan Wasir Ambeien
Obat Wasir dan ambeien
Pengobatan Wasir atau ambeien
Obat Wasir atau Ambeien yang ada di Apotik
Obat Wasir Ambeien di Apotik
Obat Wasir atau Ambeien Apotik
Pengobatan Wasir atau Ambeien di Apotik
Obat Wasir Ambeien Ambeclear
Obat Ambeien Ambeclear
Pengobatan Wasir atau Ambeien Ambeclear
Obat Wasir atau Ambeien dari Ambeclear
Obat Wasir Manjur
Obat Ambeien Manjur
Obat Wasir Ambeien Manjur
Pengobatan Wasir atau Ambeien Manjur
obat kemaluan bernanah
pengobatan kemaluan bernanah
obat kelamin pria bernanah
obat ampuh kemaluan pria bernanah
Obat Kemaluan Pria Bernanah
Obat Kemaluan yang Bernanah
Obat Kemaluan Pria yg Bernanah
Obat Ampuh Kemaluan Pria yang Bernanah
Obat Kemaluan Pria Bernanah
Resep Obat Kemaluan Bernanah
Resep Obat kelamin Pria Bernanah
Resep Obat Alami Kemaluan Pria Bernanah
Cari Obat untuk sakit Kemaluan Pria Bernanah
Obat Kemaluan Pria Bernanah
Cari Alami Obat Kemaluan Pria Bernanah
Cari Tradisional Obat Kemaluan Pria Bernanah
Beli Obat Penyakit Kemaluan Pria Bernanah
Obat Kemaluan Pria Bernanah
Beli Obat Kemaluan Bernanah
Beli Obat sakit Kemaluan Pria Bernanah

herbal >>> said...

good
Pengobatan manjur Kondiloma Akuminata
Cara Pengobatan manjur Kondiloma Akuminata
Pengobatan Yang manjur Kondiloma Akuminata
Pengobatan Herbal manjur Kondiloma Akuminata
Pengobatan manjur Kondiloma Akuminata Tanpa Operasi
Pengobatan Manjur Virus Kondiloma Akuminata
Cari Pengobatan Manjur Virus Kondiloma Akuminata
Pengobatan Alami Manjur Virus Kondiloma Akuminata
Pengobatan Manjur Atasi Virus Kondiloma Akuminata
Pengobatan Manjur Hilangkan Virus Kondiloma Akuminata
Pengobatan Manjur Infeksi Kondiloma Akuminata
Pengobatan Manjur Sembuhkan Infeksi Kondiloma Akuminata
Pengobatan Manjur Untuk Infeksi Kondiloma Akuminata
Pengobatan Manjur Buat Infeksi Kondiloma Akuminata
Pengobatan Tradisional Manjur Infeksi Kondiloma Akuminata

hou said...

The long history of the famous construction has a private studio, dior current art director John Galliano sir is here with great concentration carve design work pieces.
xiaomi redmi note 2 review
meizu mx5 review
meizu review

obat herbal said...

Mengobati Kutil KemaluanDan cara pengobatan ini tentunya akan lebih menyakitkan dari pengobatan sebelumnya, tak jarang juga manakutkan penderitanya. Sinar lase akan diarahkan pada alat kelamin untuk membakar kutil-kutil yang bertumbuh. untuk cara pemesanana silahkan kunjungweb site ini

obat wasir tradisional untuk ibu menyusuiJika Anda sedang mencari obat alami untuk wasir ada beberapa hal yang dapat Anda lakukan untuk meringankan rasa sakit, iritasi dan ketidaknyamanan, serta ingin memperbaiki masalah Anda secara definitif.

obat keluar nanah dari kemaluanJika kedua penyakit ini menyerang ibu hamil, maka bayi dalam kandungan memiliki resiko yang besar untuk terinfeksi saat proses persalinan. Ketiga, munculnya penyakit ini adalah akibat kurangnya kesadaran akan pentingnya memiliki hubungan seksual yang sehat dengan pemakaian kondom atau tidak berganti-ganti pasangan saat melakukan hubungan seks.untuk cara pemesanana silahkan kunjungklik disin

Obat Kutil Di Kemaluan PriaApakah Pengobatan Herbal Adalah Cara Terbaik Untuk Menyembuhkan Kutil Kelamin?untuk cara pemesanana silahkan kunjungblog kami

obat keluar nanah dari kemaluanYang kedua, pastikan pasangan seksual anda sehat dan tidak memiliki masalah dengan penyakit menular. Dan ketiga, cobalah setia dengan satu pasangan dan hindari bergonta-ganti pasangan saat berhubungan seks.untuk cara pemesanana silahkan kunjungklik disin

Obat Kutil Di KemaluanSeperti yang kita tahu bahwa penyebab utama penyakit kutil kelamin ini adalah Virus Papilloma yang jika tidak dikendalikan maka akan mudah datang kembali. untuk cara pemesanana silahkan kunjungsitus kami

Obat Kutil Di Sekitar KelaminEkstrak obat herbal ini dapat dengan mudah dicerna tubuh dan menyembuhkan secara alami dari dalam, tanpa efek samping seperti pengobatan kimia lainya. untuk cara pemesanana silahkan kunjungblog ini

obat herbal said...

Mengobati Kutil KemaluanDan cara pengobatan ini tentunya akan lebih menyakitkan dari pengobatan sebelumnya, tak jarang juga manakutkan penderitanya. Sinar lase akan diarahkan pada alat kelamin untuk membakar kutil-kutil yang bertumbuh. untuk cara pemesanana silahkan kunjungweb site ini

obat wasir tradisional untuk ibu menyusuiJika Anda sedang mencari obat alami untuk wasir ada beberapa hal yang dapat Anda lakukan untuk meringankan rasa sakit, iritasi dan ketidaknyamanan, serta ingin memperbaiki masalah Anda secara definitif.

obat keluar nanah dari kemaluanJika kedua penyakit ini menyerang ibu hamil, maka bayi dalam kandungan memiliki resiko yang besar untuk terinfeksi saat proses persalinan. Ketiga, munculnya penyakit ini adalah akibat kurangnya kesadaran akan pentingnya memiliki hubungan seksual yang sehat dengan pemakaian kondom atau tidak berganti-ganti pasangan saat melakukan hubungan seks.untuk cara pemesanana silahkan kunjungklik disin

Obat Kutil Di Kemaluan PriaApakah Pengobatan Herbal Adalah Cara Terbaik Untuk Menyembuhkan Kutil Kelamin?untuk cara pemesanana silahkan kunjungblog kami

obat keluar nanah dari kemaluanYang kedua, pastikan pasangan seksual anda sehat dan tidak memiliki masalah dengan penyakit menular. Dan ketiga, cobalah setia dengan satu pasangan dan hindari bergonta-ganti pasangan saat berhubungan seks.untuk cara pemesanana silahkan kunjungklik disin

Obat Kutil Di KemaluanSeperti yang kita tahu bahwa penyebab utama penyakit kutil kelamin ini adalah Virus Papilloma yang jika tidak dikendalikan maka akan mudah datang kembali. untuk cara pemesanana silahkan kunjungsitus kami

Obat Kutil Di Sekitar KelaminEkstrak obat herbal ini dapat dengan mudah dicerna tubuh dan menyembuhkan secara alami dari dalam, tanpa efek samping seperti pengobatan kimia lainya. untuk cara pemesanana silahkan kunjungblog ini